Control System Development

Control System Development

Welcome to the BLTE Discussion site... Daniel Woody

Gravity according to Daniel Woody

This post is a copy of an Email sent to an associate in the Netherlands in September of 2013.  It is an interesting prolog for my next project, the "Gravity Eye" and an introduction, for some, to one of the most powerful and pervasive forces in the Universe; "inertial", "universal" or "far field gravity".


Dear Rob,


This issue was bound to arise!  Please read this in accordance to the haste with which it was written...


Your project, CONCERTO, has taken you (us) into relatively unexplored territory.  That territory is the "mechanical utility" of local gravitational influences.  This is another one of those areas that is treated without reverence because of the consistency of its presence in our earth-bound environment.  The reason I have added myself "us" in this conversation is because with the first explanations of your project it became immediately obvious to me the conceptual immensity and scientific implications of this endeavor.  You reflected that some comments were, that on lookers "could not see from where the energy output of CONCERTO was being derived"; I will give you my "opinion" on that subject.  


"The Earth along with every point of everything and everywhere else is inextricably part of a gravitational tension field the extents of which are universal and perfectly(?) balanced.  Partly because if there were imbalance we or it would either fall or be weighted toward the imbalance thus reestablishing the balanced effect!



Analogy of Light and Gravity:


Light travels outwards (omnidirectional) from its source of illumination. 

  • Light is an electromagnetic phenomena by which objects can equalize temperatures at a distance. 
  • Light is blocked by intervening objects causing those objects to heat. 

Gravitational acceleration is directed inwards (omnidirectionally) towards the local center of mass. 


The science of gravity, that is, the gravitational forces exerted upon a "test object" are determined by object mass, the object geometry and the distance between attracting objects.  Where an object's geometry has a great influence on the intensity and direction (angle) of gravitational attraction then the attractive force is a "local gravitational field" as opposed to the universal gravity field.  The "universal gravitational field" is an all pervasive tension field composed of the gravitational influences of every object in the universe and its affect at any given point in the universe.  Gravity has certain analogies to light in that the strength of a gravitational or luminous field generally changes on a "test object" as a function of the distance from the center of gravity of mutually attracting objects.  Take the Earth for instance, the center of gravity of the Earth is presumably in the geometric (spherical) center of the Earth and can there be expected to "equal zero" if the mass of the Earth is distributed evenly around the spherical center.  As a test object approaches the Earth's surface from the center, the force due to gravity increases to maximum at he surface and then begins to decrease as the test object leaves the surface proceeding upward and outward.  At the surface, the Earth's spherical mass pulls equally in all directions canceling the horizontal force components while the vertical components add and are directed towards the Earth's center.  The gravitational force on the surface acts as an attraction generated from an infinite sheet where intensity does not change as a function of distance.  Because it is a sphere however the decrease of gravitational force will start to function with the inverse square of the distance from the mass center at a distance of about ten (10) radii or greater (40,000 miles).


A ray of light is blocked or imparts its energy to any object in its path whether that object be dark or luminous, opaque or transparent; this may be the reason that the night sky appears "dark" except where lit by near-by "stars".  Gravitational "rays" are not blocked by objects encountered but instead add, overlap or intensify the force of attraction opposite to the direction of its travel(?) such that the attractive influences from the universe's furthest reaches are felt at every point in space, at the speed of light(?) and are equally balanced.  If we could see gravitational forces then the universe would appear incredibly, unimaginably bright in every direction because such is the intensity of the "universal gravitational tension field".  It is this tension field that is responsible for the phenomena of inertia. 





The acceleration by virtue of electromagnetic influences is accompanied by an inertial reaction prompting the observation that "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" which is true for actions caused by electromagnetic (EM) sources but not by gravitational sources.  An electromagnetic acceleration such as an explosion, a push, or the action of a gyroscope has a centripetal motion (pull) accompanied by a centrifugal moment (push).  The impulse of motion happens at the "speed of sound" through the object being EM transmitted.

A gravitational acceleration such as falling, orbiting a planet or a star has a centripetal motion that is not accompanied by a resultant centrifugal moment.  The impulse of motion happens at the speed of light(?) affecting every point through the object being accelerated.



Material Effects:


Locally space and time are compressed and perhaps devoured by matter due to its mass effects.  Compression of time is perceived as a slowing of time in a gravitational field.



Spacial Effects:


In the relatively empty regions, space is stretching under the influences of universal gravitational tension where this may account for the effects of universal expansion.  Under such conditions time would be accelerated or would proceed at some maximum rate.





  1. At distances of more than 10 radii, gravitational acceleration of a reference object decreases as a function of the inverse square of the distance (r2) from that source; now effectively a "point source" and the increase of the spherical area of the gravity field would be = 2/3·π·r2; the inner surface of a sphere. 
  2. If that point were extended to an infinite line then the gravitational acceleration decreases as a function of the inverse distance (r) from that source, "a line source" and the increase of the cylindrical area of the gravity field would be = 2·π·r.
  3. If that line were extended to an infinite sheet then the gravitational acceleration would NOT decrease as a function distance from that source, "a sheet source".  The magnitude of the gravity field would be constant (= 1) at any distance from the sheet source.  Which implies that the Earth's surface appears as a sheet for small distances from the surface and appears as a point at radial distances greater than 10; for small distances there is no appreciable decrease in gravitational strength but at great distances (r >> 10) from the surface the gravitational influence decreases but never goes to zero. 

Notice that in the three scenarios above the Point, the Line and the Flat Sheet that the important aspect of departure from the source is the angle of gravitational attraction. 





The kinetic energy extracted from a gravity system can only be gotten by allowing an object to fall towards system mass retarding the expansion of the universe where inversely the energy stored in an object's potential when raised from the surface, is the result of propelling the universal expansion. 



All of this to say that:  


The gravitational acceleration decreases as a function of the inverse square of the distance from a point source or as the diminishing "angle of attraction" from the test object to the attracting mass approaches zero.  If the "angle of attraction" is 90 degrees (or near 90 degrees) then the gravitational acceleration is constant in that dimension as with the intensity function of the distance from a sheet source.  The only place where a local gravity field is zero, for a reference object, is at that object's center of mass.  (Equations are needed for these examples!)



A short list of gravitational phenomena:  


  1. There are two divisions of omnidirectional gravitational fields, the concentric local field (earth gravity) and the eccentric far field (universal gravity). 
  2. Acceleration of an object (action) is possible without inertial effects (reaction)
    • The observation that "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" is either not true, not observable or displaced in time for gravitational accelerations.
    • This acceleration would form the basis for "inertialess" drive...
  3. Since the gravity field of every object in the universe arrives at all points in the universe in concert with all other gravity fields then the gravitational tension (canceling in all directions) is immensely and perhaps infinitely intense.
  4. All gravity fields both local and universal gravity influences only accelerations (not velocity).
    • Gravitational acceleration to the center of a mass (falling or orbiting) is without inertial effects.
    • Electromagnetic accelerations are coupled with inertial responses. Either translational (straight line) or rotational (gyroscopic).
    • Regardless of speed, any acceleration source can change the test objects initial speed...
  5. Every object in the universe is inextricably linked into the universal gravity field or "feels" the attraction of all other objects in the universe.  Any action of "contraction or expansion" has an effect on the universal field and in time(?) on every other object in the universe.
  6. Any object moving towards or away from the center of mass, positively or negatively influences the universal expansion.  Especially for CONCERTO:
    • Towards the center of mass energy is delivered in a kinetic form.
    • Away from the center of mass energy is delivered in a potential form.

For an object, the kinetic and potential are always in balance...  Therefore the conservation of energy is also a gravitational effect.



Notes:  The “? mark” refers to two undetermined issues:


  1. Is the Universe infinate or finite?  In either case the effects, within the Universe, result in a balanced tension of  inertial influences:
    1. In the case of a finite Universe, an inbalance of material distribution would cause a test object to accelerate (fall) in the direction of the material abundance resulting in a balanced attraction in all directions
    2. In the case of an infinite Universe, material is distributed infinately in all directions resulting in a balanced attraction in all directions
  2. Is the speed of light the ultimate velocity or is there instaneous interaction of matter with all other matter (a delicate subject):
    1. Scientific experimantation seems to support both assumptions:
      • That subatomic particles increase in mass with higher relative velocity
      • That subatomic particles exhibit quantum non-locality or "spooky action at a distance"
    2. Perhaps matter has an infinate (or immense) potential energy relative to universal inertial effects but finite when measured in a closed reference and shares a finate kenetic energy duality


Well, that's all I have for now.  "Gravity according to Daniel"


History of the Internal Combustion Reciprocating Engine - The Heart of the Automobile

I have posted this BLOG to illustrate the "faint or etheral" notions that, without proper attention, delay world changing products or progress; sometimes by hundreds or thousands of years...


Daniel Woody


AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING ENGINE is any engine that uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder - the piston's movement turns a crankshaft that then turns the car wheels via a chain or a drive shaft. The different types of fuel commonly used for car combustion engines are gasoline (or petrol), diesel, and kerosene.

A brief outline of the history of the internal combustion engine includes the following highlights:

  • 1680 - Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens designed (but never built) an internal combustion engine that was to be fueled with gunpowder.
  • 1807 - Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented an internal combustion engine that used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen for fuel. Rivaz designed a car for his engine - the first internal combustion powered automobile. However, his was a very unsuccessful design.
  • 1824 - English engineer, Samuel Brown adapted an old Newcomen steam engine to burn gas, and he used it to briefly power a vehicle up Shooter's Hill in London.
  • 1858 - Belgian-born engineer, Jean JosephÉtienne Lenoir invented and patented (1860) a double-acting, electric spark-ignition internal combustion engine fueled by coal gas. In 1863, Lenoir attached an improved engine (using petroleum and a primitive carburetor) to a three-wheeled wagon that managed to complete an historic fifty-mile road trip. (See image at top)
  • 1862 - Alphonse Beau de Rochas, a French civil engineer, patented but did not build a four-stroke engine (French patent #52,593, January 16, 1862).
  • 1864 - Austrian engineer, Siegfried Marcus*, built a one-cylinder engine with a crude carburetor, and attached his engine to a cart for a rocky 500-foot drive. Several years later, Marcus designed a vehicle that briefly ran at 10 mph that a few historians have considered as the forerunner of the modern automobile by being the world's first gasoline-powered vehicle (however, read conflicting notes below).
  • 1873 - George Brayton, an American engineer, developed an unsuccessful two-stroke kerosene engine (it used two external pumping cylinders). However, it was considered the first safe and practical oil engine.
  • 1866 - German engineers, Eugen Langen and Nikolaus August Otto improved on Lenoir's and de Rochas' designs and invented a more efficient gas engine.
  • 1876 - Nikolaus August Otto invented and later patented a successful four-stroke engine, known as the "Otto cycle".
  • 1876 - The first successful two-stroke engine was invented by Sir Dougald Clerk.
  • 1883 - French engineer, Edouard Delamare-Debouteville, built a single-cylinder four-stroke engine that ran on stove gas. It is not certain if he did indeed build a car, however, Delamare-Debouteville's designs were very advanced for the time - ahead of both Daimler and Benz in some ways at least on paper.
  • 1885 - Gottlieb Daimler invented what is often recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine - with a vertical cylinder, and with gasoline injected through a carburetor (patented in 1887). Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle the "Reitwagen" (Riding Carriage) with this engine and a year later built the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
  • 1886 - On January 29, Karl Benz received the first patent (DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled car.
  • 1889 - Daimler built an improved four-stroke engine with mushroom-shaped valves and two V-slant cylinders.
  • 1890 - Wilhelm Maybach built the first four-cylinder, four-stroke engine.

           Further Reading - The Mechanics of Internal Combustion Engines - What is a 2-stroke? 4-stroke?

Engine design and car design were integral activities, almost all of the engine designers mentioned above also designed cars, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the internal combustion vehicles.

Engine Performance Criteria

Problems with the MPG Comparison Method:

The Criteria for engine comparison as suggested and derived from the automotive industry is measured in “Miles per Gallon” (MPG) which would be (loosely considered) vehicle fuel efficiency versus “Gallons per Mile” ( GPM ) which would be (loosely considered) vehicle fuel consumption.  With an initial inspection this method of engine comparison has little to do with engine performance except how an engine may be performing in a land vehicle.  This method of analysis is subject to many external influences which makes this measurement technique almost useless.  Even in two identical vehicles or the same vehicle driven by different operators at different times can produce wildly different results. 


Some problems inherent with this technique are:

  • Fuel consumption results are dependent on the road conditions (especially curves, hills, stops, smoothness, wet pavement where water is pumped away from the tire contact to the roadway)
  • Driver differences as with rates of acceleration, accelerations and decelerations while attempting a constant speed, idle time, friction braking frequency, turns and lane changing
  • Precipitation where every drop of rain or snow get accelerated to the vehicle speed
  • Barometric pressure where the engine has more power with increasing pressure and less power with reduced pressure
  • Fuel consumption is dependent on which way the wind is blowing

In every instance the criteria and the basis of MPG comparison are vehicle based, poorly measured and subjectively compared. 

In addition different types of vehicles equipped with the same engine will produce different results.  For instance a pick-up truck versus an excavator would also produce wildly different results.


Other problems inherent with this technique are:

  • Aircraft fuel consumption does not translate without creative math to “Miles per Gallon”
  • Marine fuel consumption does not translate without creative math to “Miles per Gallon”
  • Rail fuel consumption does not translate without creative math to “Miles per Gallon”
  • Generator fuel consumption has no relationship to this measurement criteria
  • Other technologies such as external combustion, solar powered and fuel cell conversions are not even considered because they cannot be applied to this measurement method

The alternative offering is to use true engine characteristics represented by a 3-dimentional (3D) graph to make power plant comparisons.  These 3D characteristics are “ RPM ” (Revolutions per Minute or revs) on the X-Axis, “Efficiency”  on the Y-Axis and Power or Torque (where Power=Torque • RPM ) on the Z-Axis.



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